The mission of the Department of Corrections is to protect the public, the employees, and the offender.
The Oklahoma Department of Corrections was created May 1, 1967, as a result of the 1967 Oklahoma Corrections Act. The Department is governed by the state Board of Corrections, a seven-member bi-partisan panel of gubernatorial appointees serving six-year staggered terms. One member is to be appointed from each of the six Congressional Districts, the seventh selected from the state at large. Not more than four members of the Board shall be from the same political party. The Board is empowered by statute to set policies for the operation of the Department, to establish and maintain institutions as necessary and to appoint a Department Director.
DUTIES / RESPONSIBILITIES
The Division of Support Services is responsible for support functions such as accounting, data processing, inmate research, personnel, and operates a central mail room and print shop.
The Division of Security and Internal Affairs is responsible for executive parole revocations, special projects, interstate compact, and internal affairs. Internal affairs conducts internal investigations, apprehends and returns escapees, and provides security for offenders at state hospitals.
The Division of Offender Services is responsible for administrative oversight for the classifying of all offenders remanded to the Department. They provide educational, recreational, psychological, and religious programming and services to the offenders as well as all department facilities and serves as liaison with the Pardon and Parole Board. In addition, the division provides an offender reintegration unit, and a nationally recognized victim's mediation program. The Victim's Services Program operates as a source of information to victims of crime concerning corrections policy and parole hearings. This division is also responsible for employee training and volunteers.
The Chief of Operations is responsible for inmate health services, prison industries, construction and maintenance, public information and public relations. Health service responsibilities include planning, developing, providing and documenting health care services to meet the needs of all inmates in department facilities. Prison Industries provides goods and services to the department and other governmental entities through inmates being employed in manufacturing plants and farms throughout the system. Manufacturing operations include furniture, material fabrication, printing, mattresses, data entry, garment microfilming, boxes, bindery products, janitorial products, license plates, drapes, furniture renovation, and signs. Agricultural Operations include beef cattle, hogs, meat processing, egg production, dairies, and various crops. Construction and Maintenance oversees and assists with major construction, renovation, and maintenance of department facilities.
The Northeastern Region is responsible for the operations of eight units in the northeastern part of the state. This region consists of Muskogee Community Corrections Center (CCC), a male offender community level facility located at Muskogee; Tulsa CCC, a male and female offender community level facility located at Tulsa; Dick Conner Correctional Center (CC), a male offender medium security facility located at Hominy; Eddie Warrior CC, a female offender minimum security facility located at Taft; Jess Dunn CC, a male offender minimum security facility located at Taft; John H. Lilly CC, a male offender minimum security facility located at Boley; and Probation and Parole District II with the district office at Tulsa; and Probation and Parole District I with the district office in Muskogee.
The Southeastern Region is responsible for the operations of seven units in the southeastern part of the state. This region consists of Howard McLeod CC, a male offender minimum security facility located at Farris; Jackie Brannon CC, a male offender minimum security facility located at McAlester; Mack Alford CC, a male offender medium security facility located at Stringtown; Ouachita CC, a male offender minimum security facility located at Hodgen; Oklahoma State Penitentiary, a male offender maximum security facility at McAlester, Probation and Parole District III with the district office located at McAlester; and Idabel Work Center(WC), a male offender work center located at Idabel, Oklahoma, and Holdenville Work Center(WC), a male offender work center located at Holdenville.
The Central Region is responsible for the operation of eight units in the central part of the state. This region consists of Clara Waters CCC, a male community level facility located at Oklahoma City; Kate Barnard CCC, a female offender community level facility located at Oklahoma City; Oklahoma City CCC, a male offender community security facility at Oklahoma City; Joseph Harp CC, a male offender medium security facility located at Lexington; Lexington Assessment and Receptions Center (A&R) which is the receiving point for all incarcerated offenders entering the system and a male offender medium security facility at Lexington; Mabel Bassett CC, a female offender minimum, medium, and maximum security facility at Oklahoma City; Probation and Parole Districts VI and VII, with district offices located in Oklahoma City; and Carver WC, a contract halfway house located at Oklahoma City.
The Western region is responsible for the operation of twenty units in the western part of the state. This region consists of Enid CCC, a male offender community level facility located at Enid; Lawton CCC, a male offender community facility level located at Lawton; James Crabtree CC, a male offender medium security facility at Helena; Oklahoma State Reformatory, a male offender medium security facility located at Granite; William S. Key CC, a male offender minimum security facility located at Fort Supply; Probation and Parole District IV with the district office at Enid; Ardmore WC, a male offender work center at Gene Autry; Healdton WC, a male offender work center located at Healdton; Marshall County, a male offender work center located at Madill; Frederick Community Service Center (CSC), a male offender work center located at Frederick; Waurika WC, a male offender work center located at Waurika; Hollis WC, a male offender work center located at Hollis; Mangum WC, a male offender work center located at Mangum; and Sayre CSC, a male offender work center located at Sayre, Oklahoma. Probation and Parole District V with the district office at Lawton ; Altus WC, a male offender work center located at Altus; Beaver SC, a male offender work center located at Beaver, Walters WC, a male offender work center located at Walters; Elk City WC, a male offender work center located at Elk City; and Hobart WC, a male offender work center located at Hobart.
Statutory Reference: Title 57, Section 501 et seq, of the Oklahoma Statutes
PERFORMANCE CRITERIA / SERVICES PROVIDED
FY-93 FY-94 FY-95 Criteria/Service: Actual Actual Budgeted Probation & Parole: Offenders on probation, parole, house arrest and pre-parole 31,109 31,823 32,972 Staff members 502.0 467.9 463.7 Ratio of offenders to officers 61.97:1 68.01:1 71.11:1 Community Corrections Centers: Inmates 1,250 1,061 1,091 Staff members 250.0 199 202.2 Ratio of inmates to staff members 5.04:1 5.33:1 5.40:1 Institutions and Work Centers: Inmates 11,541 11,882 12,476 Staff members 2,945.5 2,754 2,794 Ratio of inmates to staff members 3.92:1 4.31:1 4.47:1
EXPENDITURES BY FUND
FY-93 FY-94 FY-95 Type of Fund: Actual Actual Budgeted State Appropriated Funds: $170,536,271 $171,600,903 $185,959,721 State Continuing/Revolving Funds: 200 DOC Revolving Fund 4,733,399 6,292,534 6,981,680 280 Industries Revolving Fund 10,319,657 12,179,296 16,054,222 Total Continuing/Revolving Funds: 15,053,056 18,471,830 23,035,902 Federal Funds: 410 Federal Funds - Title 1 246,901 245,630 340,000 430 Agency Relationship Fund 646,896 710,997 790,707 Total Federal Expenditures 893,797 956,627 1,130,707 Total Expenditures by Fund $186,483,124 $191,029,360 $210,126,330 Capital Outlay Expenditures: State Appropriated Funds $2,705,088 $0 $0 130/131 Bond Issue Money 0 $136,689 $0 280 Industries Revolving Fund 30,870 347,896 624,000 Total Capital Outlay Expenditures $2,735,958 $484,585 $624,000
EXPENDITURES BY OBJECT
FY-93 FY-94 FY-95 Object of Expenditure Actual Actual Budgeted Salaries and Benefits $129,846,198 $129,603,710 $140,660,806 Professional Services 5,250,308 5,297,846 6,002,828 Travel 529,273 608,869 701,855 Lease-Purchase Expenditures 468,340 457,213 451,648 Equipment 3,237,211 3,612,789 4,573,163 Payments to Local Gov't 1,210,039 18,989 Other Operating Expenses 45,941,755 51,429,944 57,736,030 Total Expenditures by Object $186,483,124 $191,029,360 $210,126,330
EXPENDITURES BY BUDGET ACTIVITY / SUB-ACTIVITY
FY-93 FY-94 FY-95 Activity No. and Name Actual Actual Budgeted 01 Jess Dunn Correctional Center $6,269,805 $6,001,622 $6,254,412 02 Ouachita Correctional Center 4,402,661 4,356,086 4,497,567 03 Mack Alford Correrctional Center 6,361,013 6,647,616 7,007,085 04 Howard McLeod Correctional Center 5,277,422 4,892,774 4,630,092 05 Oklahoma State Penitentiary 15,676,594 15,471,150 16,322,464 06 Lexington A & R Center 9,519,119 9,386,843 9,754,234 07 Joseph Harp Correctional Center 7,282,422 7,754,768 8,077,283 08 Dick Conner Correctional Center 8,256,444 8,277,069 8,508,240 09 Mabel Bassett Correctional Center 3,550,480 3,712,750 3,786,749 10 Oklahoma State Reformatory 7,996,677 9,303,079 6,829,538 11 James Crabtree Correctional Center 5,626,465 6,137,833 6,401,269 12 John Lilley Correctional Center 4,365,078 4,316,282 4,495,613 13 Jackie Brannon Correctional Center 3,768,787 4,679,104 4,850,400 14 William S. Key Correctional Center 4,699,632 4,701,216 4,245,969 15 Northeastern Oklahoma Corr. Center 0 0 2,984,540 16 Eddie Warrior Correctional Center 4,245,895 4,229,111 4,097,847 17 Drug Offender Work Camp at Alva 0 0 0 21 Probation and Parole 17,996,677 18,579,393 20,341,855 31 Community Corrections & Work Ctrs 12,373,988 10,438,525 14,265,990 41 Agrilculture 4,099,611 6,530,619 0 42 Prison Industries 7,288,324 8,578,356 19,055,898 45 Rodeo and Special Events 31,009 17,953 0 47 Federal Grant 236,934 227,743 0 51 Offender Programs 10,804,616 11,149,850 10,268,462 56 Contracted Services 0 0 3,010,208 61 Administrative Services 17,885,684 17,950,734 23,205,393 62 Security & Internal Affairs 1,425,586 1,356,470 0 63 Health Services 13,983,318 13,249,311 13,816,252 88 Computer Systems 3,058,883 3,083,103 3,418,970 Total Expenditures by Program $186,483,124 $191,029,360 $210,126,330
FULL-TIME-EQUIVALENT EMPLOYEES (FTE) and VEHICLES
FY-93 FY-94 FY-95 Activity No. and Name Actual Actual Budgeted 01 Jess Dunn Correctional Center 164.0 156.3 153.7 02 Quachita Correctional Center 111.8 109.8 107.9 03 Mack Alford Correctional Center 178.2 182.7 183.8 04 Howard McLeod Correctional Center 140.8 123.6 112.5 05 Oklahoma State Penitentiary 486.1 466.9 473.8 06 Lexington A & R Center 253.6 250.6 245.1 07 Joseph Harp Correctional Center 198.0 206.5 205.6 08 Dick Conner Correctional Center 209.5 204.7 204.9 09 Mabel Bassett Correctional Center 100.3 99.8 99.7 10 Oklahoma State Reformatory 218.5 205.4 175.6 11 James Crabtree Correctional Center 156.3 169.0 163.7 12 John Lilley Correctional Center 118.4 112.2 111.1 13 Jackie Brannon Correctional Center 104.3 120.4 120.7 14 William S Key Correctional Center 123.8 119.4 99.7 15 Northeastern Oklahoma Correctional 0.0 0.0 73.6 16 Eddie Warrior Correctional Center 116.4 113.4 107.9 17 Drug Offender Work Camp at Alva 0.0 0.0 0.0 21 Probation and Parole 472.9 472.3 463.7 31 Community Treatment 299.8 295.7 332.0 41 Agriculture 14.5 73.3 0.0 42 Manufacturing 70.9 70.9 165.0 45 Rodeo and Special Events 0.0 0.0 0.0 47 Federal Grants - Education 2.5 2.5 0.0 51 Offender Programs 166.1 167.2 194.4 56 Contracted Services 0.0 0.0 0.0 61 Administration Services 201.4 189.7 247.6 62 Security and Internal Affairs 43.0 42.5 0.0 63 Health Services 272.0 272.8 239.4 88 Computer Services 32.1 31.0 25.8 Total FTE 4,255.2 4,258.6 4,307.2 Number of Vehicles 477 503 515
HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE / REVIEW
One of the fastest growing sectors of federal or state government is that of the number of prisoners under jurisdiction of correctional authorities. In 1980, the United States prison population was 329,821, as compared to the record high of 995,730 in the year ending 1993 - an increase 665,909 inmates or 202% for an annual change of 9.0%. (The Corrections Yearbook, 1994, Adults Corrections). Although the United States has a high crime rate, it also has a very high incarceration rate - the highest of any industrialized nation in the world. Oklahoma has kept in step with the national trend as the correction system population has increased steadily since the mid-1970s. The current population has more than doubled since the end of 1982 when there were 6,500 offenders incarcerated. Receptions into the prison system have outpaced both releases and new beds. Receptions during 1986 averaged 370 per month. Since that year, the average monthly reception rates have risen steadily to the present rate, which is 587 per month, a 59% increase.
The rate of incarceration for the State of Oklahoma in the 1993-1994 period showed an increase of 7.3 percent as compared to the national average of 7.8 percent. Oklahoma has the third highest total inmate incarceration rate per 100,000 residents with 517 as of January 1, 1994 as compared to the national average of 370. Oklahoma has led the nation for the past five consecutive years (1987-1994) with the percentage of female inmates with 9.6 percent. The national average is 5.5 percent for states with over 500 female inmates. From 1988 to the year ending 1994, the incarceration of females in Oklahoma had increased by 793 inmates or 108 percent.
Growth in Expenditures
As the crime rate continues to soar across the United States, citizens demand the criminal elements be removed from the streets and placed in federal and state institutions. Legislative bodies across the United States have heeded the cry of its citizens by enacting mandatory, lengthy sentences for those convicted of crimes, thereby filling up jails and prisons. Similarly, as the inmate count increases, we see a dramatic growth in appropriations, growth in corrections staff and growth in the prison at-facility capacity. In 1992, the United States spent pproximately $24.9 billion to build, operate and maintain its prison and jails. Concerned of having their penal institutions placed under court order because of crowding conditions, many states are building prisons they can't afford to open. From FY-86 to FY-95 the department's appropriation has increased from $109,814,829 to $185,166,721, or 68.6% over the past ten years.
With less than projected FY-93 revenue available for appropriation by the legislature for FY-94, lawmakers were forced to cut budgets and reprioritize state needs. One method used by the lawmakers to close the budget gap, was the implementation of budget cuts averaging 10% of the base for most appropriated agencies. Going against the tide, this agency was appropriated $172,183,728, an increase of $210,157 or 0.12% more than in FY-93.
In FY-95, the Department of Corrections received and additional $13 million via a Revenue Bond issue, with $10 million to be used for infrastructure and maintenance to existing facilities and $3 million for the conversion of Eastern State Hospital into a 380 bed minimum security prison. The department gains 70 medium security level beds by transferring the Interim Mental Health Unit to Eastern State. The agency also received funding for an additional 70-100 bed work center, and funds to expand the Community Service Sentencing Program.
The 1994 legislature funded an across-the-board employee pay plan for 9 months at $800 for each state employee (prorated for 9 months). In addition, the legislature provided funding for a 6% salary adjustment for all correctional officers and probation and parole officers beginning Oct. 1, 1994 (prorated for 9 months). Additional costs in '96 would cover the remaining three months. The department was appropriated an additional $12,982,993 funding for FY'95; $3,850,878 to compensate the agency for the state employee and law enforcement pay plan. This results in a percentage change of 7.5% in funding plus 4.9% in FTE from FY-94.
Program and Alternatives for Addressing Inmate Growth
Many people believe literacy and the ability to find a job on the outside are key to reducing recidivism. Sixty four percent of Oklahoma inmates did not finish high school, and 41 percent read at or below the eighth-grade level. In Oklahoma the recidivism rate in 1993 was 30 percent, below the national average of 34.8 percent. Thirty-two percent of admissions to the DOC in 1993 had served a prior felony sentence; the national average was 36.7 percent.
Many educational programs are currently available at each facility within the department. When offenders enter the correction system, they receive an assessment of educational skills and progress. Program participation is based on the their abilities, past education and employment, and goals. During FY-94, 5,423 inmates participated in at least one educational program. Of the 1,189 inmates that took the GED test in 1994, 1,014 (85.3%) passed the exam.
In 1987, the Department of Corrections implemented the Literacy Program. Inmates who test below the fifth grade reading level are directed into a preliminary Adult Basic Education (ABE) program that includes intensive one-on-one tutoring with inmate tutors. The 1992 Legislature supported the Governor's plan to provide literacy training for inmates by providing funds for five additional literacy labs, bringing the total of funded labs to eleven. Experience indicates that a literacy computer lab costs $60,000 per site. In FY-95, the department received sufficient funds to equip and staff the remaining three correctional centers. The 1993 Legislature passed the Oklahoma Inmate Literacy Act that requires inmates to participate in a literacy program if their reading skills are below the 8th grade level as a condition of preparole conditonal supervision and parole. This act is an attempt to reduce recidivism by giving the individual the necessary educational tools, self esteem and motivation to stay out of prison.
Alternative Sentencing Programs
As the flow of admissions increases at-facilities, the department has responded with alternative programs such as electronic monitoring, inmate work centers, pre-parole conditional supervision program, prisoner public work programs and expanding the regimented inmate discipline program (a military style "boot camp") for both male and female offenders. The Electronic Monitored Supervision Program was created by the 1993 Legislative session as an alternative to incarceration of non-violent inmates. As of December 31, 1994, 1,453 non-violent inmates, not deemed a security risk, with no history of substance abuse and are not a threat to the public have participated in the program.
SB 814, passed by the 1993 Legislature, gave the courts the option of ordering drunk driving offenders to install a Breath Alcohol Ignition Interlock Device in their cars. Nationwide, 27 states have state laws authorizing the use of the system. In Hamilton County, Ohio, where the system is mandatory, a 30 month study showed a 70 percent decrease of re-arrests rates among them. For the year ending December 31, 1994, 223 Ignition Interlocks Systems were installed in Oklahoma vehicles.
Drug Offender Work Camp
Inmate population by crime type, points out that for the year end of 1994, nearly 20 percent of the 16,992 inmates were convicted on possession or distribution of drugs. This category accounts for over 20 percent of inmate receptions. The increasing incarceration rate of drug offenders in the Oklahoma corrections systems germinated an alternative to the conventional prison setting - the Drug Offender Work Camp. The Oklahoma Building Bond program was successfully passed by the November 1992 referendum. The program includes $5,000,000 for construction of a 300 bed Drug Offender Work Camp. In November 1993, Alva, Oklahoma was selected as the site for the first Drug Offender Work Camp in Oklahoma. Estimated completion date is the spring of 1995.
Controlling Prison Populations
At almost any given time, county jails are holding between 450 and 500 inmates awaiting permission from the DOC to transfer them to the state. To keep the state prison system from being placed under federal court sanctions again, the 1993 Legislators passed SB 565, the Prison Population Management Act (PPMA) of 1993.
SB 565 was driven by the simple fact that yearly intakes exceeded outputs by approximately 1,100 inmates. SB 565 provides the principles of a "safety relief valve" to prevent intervention by the federal courts. The Prison Population Management Act (PPMA) requires the Director of the DOC to notify the Governor and the Attorney General to declare that a state of emergency exists whenever the inmate population exceeds 97.5% of capacity. The state of emergency exists until such time as the population is reduced to 95% of capacity. One of the major points of contention in this controversial Act is that the Pardon and Parole Board are removed from the critical decision making arena. Some observers have said the program only speeds up the "revolving door" for inmates who are imprisoned but soon let free due to overcrowding. As of December 31, 1993, 1,323 inmates have been released under the PPMA and assigned to the DOC's Specialized Supervision Program since.
The State's "Cap" law, which can be implemented when prison population becomes greater than 95 percent of the rated capacity, grants emergency credits to inmates, but does not automatically release them. A "Cap" does not necessarily reduce the population to capacity levels. Therefore the population has continued to grow well beyond rated prison capacity irrespective of the "Cap" law. For calendar year 1994, 711 inmates were released under the Cap.
Sentences % Time Served
Less than 2 years: 32.37 Released through Pre Parole: Conditional Supervision: 20.1 Inmates who discharged their sentences: 39.04 Specialized Supervision 16.00
A year in prison lasts fewer than 98 days. The longer a felon's sentence, the lower the proportion he is likely to serve. The study was completed at the request of a Tulsa lawyer who is working on a report for the Eastern U.S. District Court on conditions behind bars.
Truth In Sentencing
Mandatory sentencing laws require prison terms for certain offenses, and most stipulate a minimum number of years the offender must serve. Such laws have a tremendous impact on prison population: 46 states have established mandatory sentencing laws and 25 states have "habitual offender laws." (Council of Governors Policy Advisors, 1994). In Oklahoma, the ground swell for Truth-In-Sentencing prompted an Interim Study on HB 1249. The bill would require inmates to serve at least 80% of their sentence before being eligible for release. It also creates a 15 member Oklahoma Truth In Sentencing Policy Advisory Commission to evaluate crimes, sentencing laws and policies and to recommend any modifications to the Legislature. In the November 1994 elections, the citizens voted in favor of HJR 1013 that amends Section 10 of Article VI of the State Constitution and allows the Legislature to set minimum prison terms for all convicted felons.